Some results on magic squares based on generating magic vectors and R-C similar transformations

Xiaoyang Ma 1 , 2 , Kai-tai Fang 1 , 3 ,  and Yu hui Deng 4
  • 1 Division of Science and Technology, BNU-HKBU United International College, , Zhuhai, China
  • 2 Department of Biostatistics, Georgetown University, , Washington D.C., United States of America
  • 3 The Key Lab of Random Complex Structures and Data Analysis, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, , Beijing, China
  • 4 Division of Science and Technology, BNU-HKBU United International College, , Zhuhai, China


In this paper we propose a new method, based on R-C similar transformation method, to study classification for the magic squares of order 5. The R-C similar transformation is defined by exchanging two rows and related two columns of a magic square. Many new results for classification of the magic squares of order 5 are obtained by the R-C similar transformation method. Relationships between basic forms and R-C similar magic squares are discussed. We also propose a so called GMV (generating magic vector) class set method for classification of magic squares of order 5, presenting 42 categories in total.

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Special Matrices is a peer-reviewed, open access electronic journal that publishes original articles of wide significance and originality in all areas of research involving structured matrices present in various branches of pure and applied mathematics and their noteworthy applications in physics, engineering, and other sciences.