Mikolaj Domaradzki graduated from the Faculty of Modern Languages at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (Poland), where he also obtained his PhD in philosophy and is currently employed as an associate professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences. At present his linguistic research is concerned with metaphors in the Arabic language, on which he has published several articles, among others, in Cognitive Linguistics and Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict.
The present paper is a corpus-based inquiry into the importance of vivification for producing a systematic and persuasive Arab economic discourse. Thus, this article examines how and why the economy is metaphorically conceptualized in modern Arabic as a Living Organism that can be said to ‘grow’, ‘revive’, etc. Having analyzed the frequency with which the various instantiations of this generic metaphor appear in Arab economic discourse, the paper goes on to discuss the value judgments that they convey. The analogy between a living organism and an economy is shown to induce very specific evaluations of such conditions as ‘growing’ or ‘being revived’. Hence, vivification is demonstrated to play a vital role in providing Arab economic discourse with textual cohesion. Although this article argues for the universal bodily grounding of the Economy Is A Living Organism metaphor, it also shows this experiential basis to be subject to cultural interpretation. The analyses carried out here suggest that projecting such physical concepts as those of ‘growth’ or ‘revival’ onto the social domain of economics entails that they are interpreted in accordance with the particular social interests of a given community.
Abdou, Ashraf. 2012. Arabic idioms: A corpus based study. London: Routledge.
Boers, Frank. 1997. ‘No pain, no gain’ in a free market rhetoric: A test for cognitive semantics? Metaphor and Symbol 12(4). 231–241.
Boers, Frank. 2000. Enhancing metaphoric awareness in specialised reading. English for Specific Purposes 19. 137–147.
Boers, Frank & Murielle Demecheleer. 1997. A few metaphorical models in (Western) economic discourse. In Wolf-Andreas Liebert, Gisela Redeker & Linda Waugh (eds.), Discourse and perspective in cognitive linguistics, 115–129. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Buckwalter, Tim & Dilworth Parkinson. 2011. A frequency dictionary of Arabic: Core vocabulary for learners. London: Routledge.
Cameron, Lynne. 1999. Identifying and describing metaphor in spoken discourse data. In Lynne Cameron & Graham Low (eds.), Researching and applying metaphor, 105–132. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Castaño, Emilia, Isabel Verdaguer, Natalia Judith Laso & Aaron Ventura. 2014. Economy is a living organism: Metaphorical expressions in a learner corpus of English. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics 27(2). 323–337.
Charteris-Black, Jonathan. 2000. Metaphor and vocabulary teaching in ESP economics. English for Specific Purposes 19. 149–165.
Charteris-Black, Jonathan. 2004. Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Charteris-Black, Jonathan & Timothy Ennis. 2001. A comparative study of metaphor in Spanish and English financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes 20. 249–266.
Charteris-Black, Jonathan & Andreas Musolff. 2003. ‘Battered hero’ or ‘innocent victim’? A comparative study of metaphors for euro trading in British and German financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes 22. 153–176.
Deignan, Alice. 1999. Corpus-based research into metaphor. In Lynne Cameron & Graham Low (eds.), Researching and applying metaphor, 177–199. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Deignan, Alice. 2005. Metaphor and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dirven, René & Wolf Paprotté. 1985. Introduction. In Wolf Paprotté & René Dirven (eds.), The ubiquity of metaphor, vii–xix. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Domaradzki, Mikolaj. 2011. The self in Arabic and the relativism-universalism controversy. Cognitive Linguistics 22(3). 535–567.
Domaradzki, Mikolaj. 2013. Conceptualizing conflict in Arab economic news reporting. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 1(1). 114–135.
Fukuda, Kosei. 2009. A comparative study of metaphors representing the US and Japanese economies. Journal of Pragmatics 41. 1693–1702.
Gibbs, Raymond W. 1994. The poetics of mind: Figurative thought, language, and understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goatly, Andrew. 2007. Washing the brain. Metaphor and hidden ideology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Henderson, Willie. 1994. Metaphor and economics. In Roger E. Backhouse (ed.), New directions in economic methodology, 343–367. London: Routledge.
Hunt, Shelby D. & Anil Menon. 1995. Metaphors and competitive advantage: Evaluating the use of metaphors in theories of competitive strategy. Journal of Business Research 33. 81–90.
Johnson, Mark. 1987. The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Koller, Veronika. 2004. Metaphor and gender in business media discourse: A critical cognitive study. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Kövecses, Zoltán. 2000. Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kövecses, Zoltán. 2005. Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson. 1999. Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.
Lakoff, George & Mark Turner. 1989. More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
López Maestre, María D. 2000. The business of cognitive stylistics: a survey of conceptual metaphors in business English. Atlantis 22(1). 47–69.
McCloskey, Donald N. 1985. The rhetoric of economics. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.
McCloskey, Donald N. 1990. If you’re so smart. The narrative of economic expertise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McCloskey, Donald N. 1994. How to do a rhetorical analysis, and why. In Roger E. Backhouse (ed.), New directions in economic methodology, 318–342. London: Routledge.
Musolff, Andreas. 2004. Metaphor and political discourse: Analogical reasoning in debates about Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Ryding, Karin C. 2005. A reference grammar of modern standard Arabic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Semino, Elena. 2008. Metaphor in discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smart, Jack R. 1993. Arabic. Kent: Hodder and Stoughton.
Wang, Huili, Tamara Runtsova, Hongjun Chen. 2013. Economy is an organism: A comparative study of metaphor in English and Russian economic discourse. Text & Talk 33(2). 259–288.
Wehr, Hans. 1979. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
White, Michael. 1997. The use of metaphor in reporting financial market transactions. Cuadernos de Filologia Inglesa 6(2). 233–245.
White, Michael. 2003. Metaphor and economics: The case of growth. English for Specific Purposes 22. 131–151.
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