Stratified reference: the common core of distributivity, aspect, and measurement

Lucas Champollion 1
  • 1 Department of Linguistics, New York University, 10 Washington Pl, New York, NY 10012, USA
Lucas Champollion

Abstract

Why can I tell you that I ran for five minutes but not that I *ran to the store for five minutes? Why can we talk about five pounds of books but not about *five pounds of book? What keeps you from saying *sixty degrees Celsius of water when you can say sixty inches of water? And what goes wrong when I complain that *all the ants in my kitchen are numerous? The constraints on these constructions involve concepts that are generally studied separately: aspect, plural and mass reference, measurement, distributivity, and collectivity. This paper provides a unified perspective on these domains and gives a single answer to the questions above in the framework of algebraic event semantics.

  • Akmajian, Adrian & Adrienne Lehrer. 1976. NP-like quantifiers and the problem of determining the head of an NP. Linguistic Analysis 2(4). 395–413.

  • Bach, Emmon. 1986. The algebra of events. Linguistics and Philosophy 9(1). 5–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00627432.

  • Bale, Alan. 2009. Yet more evidence for the emptiness of plurality. In A. Schardl, M. Walkow & M. Abdurrahman (eds.), Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the North Eastern Linguistics Society (NELS 38), vol. 1, 75–88. Graduate Linguistics Student Association. Amherst, MA: University of Massachussetts.

  • Bale, Alan, Michaël Gagnon & Hrayr Khanjian. 2011. Cross-linguistic representations of numerals and number marking. In N. Li & D. Lutz (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Conference on Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 20), 582–598. CLC Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/salt.v20i0.2552.

  • Bennett, Michael R. & Barbara H. Partee. 1972. Toward the logic of tense and aspect in English. Tech. rep. System Development Corporation.

  • Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Dissertation. http://repository.upenn.edu/edissertations/958/.

  • Champollion, Lucas. 2014a. Covert distributivity in algebraic event semantics. Under revision. http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/002097.

  • Champollion, Lucas. 2014b. Overt distributivity in algebraic event semantics. Under revision. http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/002098.

  • Champollion, Lucas. to appear(a). Distributivity, collectivity and cumulativity. In L. Matthewson, C. Meier, H. Rullmann & T. E. Zimmermann (eds.), Wiley’s companion to semantics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/002133.

  • Champollion, Lucas. to appear(b). Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Champollion, Lucas & Manfred Krifka. to appear. Mereology. In P. Dekker & M. Aloni (eds.), Cambridge handbook of semantics. Cambridge University Press. http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/002099.

  • Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Beyond explanatory adequacy. MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics 20. 104–131.

  • Crain, Stephen. 2011. Meaning in first language acquisition. In K. von Heusinger, C. Maienborn & P. Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, vol. 3 Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science (HSK), chap. 103, 2724–2752. Berlin, Germany/Boston, MA: de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110253382.2724.

  • Daubert, B. F. & T. H. Clarke. 1944. Unsaturated Synthetic Glycerides. VI. Polymorphism of Symmetrical Monoöleyldisaturated Triglycerides. Journal of the American Chemical Society 66(5). 690–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01233a008.

  • Dobrovie-Sorin, Carmen. 2014. Collective quantification and the homogeneity constraint. In M. Wiegand, T. Snider & S. D’Antonio (eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 24), 453–472. LSA and CLC Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/salt.v24i0.2428.

  • Doetjes, Jenny. 2007. Adverbs and quantification: Degrees versus frequency. Lingua 117(4). 685–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2006.04.003.

  • Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar: The semantics of verbs and times in generative semantics and in Montague’s PTQ, vol. 7 Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978–94–009–9473–7.

  • Dowty, David R. 1987. Collective predicates, distributive predicates, and All. In F. Marshall (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Eastern States Conference on Linguistics (ESCOL 3), 97–115. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.

  • Farkas, Donka F. & Henriëtte E. de Swart. 2010. The semantics and pragmatics of plurals. Semantics and Pragmatics 3(6). 1–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.3.6.

  • Filip, Hana. 2000. The quantization puzzle. In C. L. Tenny & J. Pustejovsky (eds.), Events as grammatical objects: the converging perspectives of lexical semantics and syntax, 39–96. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

  • Gärdenfors, Peter. 2007. Representing actions and functional properties in conceptual spaces. In T. Ziemke, J. Zlatev & R. M. Frank (eds.), Body language and mind, volume 1: Embodiment, 167–196. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110207507.2.167.

  • Gawron, Jean Mark. 2002. Two kinds of determiners in DP. Talk at LSA winter meeting.

  • Gawron, Jean Mark. 2005. Generalized paths. In E. Georgala & J. Howell (eds.), Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 15). Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications. http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~gawron/salt_paper.pdf.

  • Groenendijk, J., T. Janssen & M. Stokhof (eds.). 1984. Truth, interpretation and information: Selected papers from the Third Amsterdam Colloquium. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110867602.

  • Guéron, Jacqueline. 1979. On the structure of “pseudo-partitive” NP’s. Bulletin of the ICU Summer Institute in Linguistics 12. 21–48.

  • Heim, Irene & Angelika Kratzer. 1998. Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

  • Hinrichs, Erhard. 1985. A compositional semantics for Aktionsarten and NP reference in English. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Dissertation. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1272461401.

  • Hitzeman, Janet. 1991. Aspect and adverbials. In S. K. Moore & A. Z. Wyner (eds.), Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 1), 107–126. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/salt.v1i0.2763.

  • Hitzeman, Janet. 1997. Semantic partition and the ambiguity of sentences containing temporal adverbials. Natural Language Semantics 5(2). 107–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1008221528793.

  • Ionin, Tania & Ora Matushansky. 2006. The composition of complex cardinals. Journal of Semantics 23(4). 315–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/ffl006.

  • Jackendoff, Ray S. 1996. The proper treatment of measuring out, telicity, and perhaps even quantification in English. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 14(2). 305–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00133686.

  • Karttunen, Lauri. 1974. Until. In Papers from the 10th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS 10), 283–297. Chicago, IL. http://web.stanford.edu/~laurik/publications/archive/until.pdf.

  • Kiparsky, Paul. 1998. Partitive case and aspect. In M. Butt & W. Geuder (eds.), The projection of arguments: Lexical and compositional factors, 265–307. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

  • Krantz, David H., R. Duncan Luce, Patrick Suppes & Amos Tversky. 1971. Foundations of measurement. New York, NY: Academic Press.

  • Kratzer, Angelika. 2007. On the plurality of verbs. In J. Dölling, T. Heyde-Zybatow & M. Schäfer (eds.), Event structures in linguistic form and interpretation, 269–300. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110925449.269.

  • Krifka, Manfred. 1986. Nominalreferenz und Zeitkonstitution: Zur Semantik von Massentermen, Pluraltermen und Aspektklassen. Munich, Germany (published 1989): Wilhelm Fink. http://amor.cms.hu–berlin.de/~h2816i3x/Publications/Krifka_1989_Nominalreferenz_Zeitkonstitution.PDF.

  • Krifka, Manfred. 1989. Nominal reference, temporal constitution and quantification in event semantics. In R. Bartsch, J. van Benthem & P. van Emde Boas (eds.), Semantics and contextual expression, 75–115. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris.

  • Krifka, Manfred. 1992. Thematic relations as links between nominal reference and temporal constitution. In I. A. Sag & A. Szabolcsi (eds.), Lexical matters, 29–53. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

  • Krifka, Manfred. 1998. The origins of telicity. In S. Rothstein (ed.), Events and grammar, vol. 70 Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy, 197–235. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3969-4_9.

  • Kroch, Anthony S. 1974. The semantics of scope in English. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dissertation. http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/13020.

  • Kuhn, Jeremy. 2014. Gather-type predicates: massiness over participants. Presentation at the 45th Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society (NELS 45). http://www.jeremykuhn.net/papers/Kuhn-gather-slides.pdf.

  • Landman, Fred. 1989. Groups, I. Linguistics and Philosophy 12(5). 559–605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00627774.

  • Landman, Fred. 1996. Plurality. In S. Lappin (ed.), Handbook of contemporary semantic theory, 425–457. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

  • Landman, Fred. 2004. Indefinites and the type of sets. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470759318.

  • Lasersohn, Peter. 1988. A semantics for groups and events. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Dissertation.

  • Link, Godehard. 1983. The logical analysis of plurals and mass terms: A lattice-theoretical approach. In Reiner Bäuerle, Christoph Schwarze & Arnim von Stechow (eds.), Meaning, use and interpretation of language, 303–323. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110852820.302. Reprinted in Link (1998), Chapter 1.

  • Link, Godehard. 1991. Quantity and number. In D. Zaefferer (ed.), Semantic universals and universal semantics, 133–149. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris. Reprinted in Link (1998), Chapter 9.

  • Link, Godehard. 1998. Algebraic semantics in language and philosophy. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. http://standish.stanford.edu.

  • Mills, I., T. Cvitaš, K. Homann, N. Kallay & K. Kuchitsu (eds.). 2007. Quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry (IUPAC Green Book). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/9781847557889.

  • Mollá-Aliod, Diego. 1997. Aspectual composition and sentence interpretation: A formal approach. Edinburgh, UK: University of Edinburgh dissertation. http://comp.mq.edu.au/~diego/publications/phd/thesis.ps.gz.

  • Moltmann, Friederike. 1991. Measure adverbials. Linguistics and Philosophy 14(6). 629–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00631962.

  • Moltmann, Friederike. 1997. Parts and wholes in semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Parsons, Terence. 1987. Underlying states in the semantical analysis of English. In Proceedings of the Aristotelian society, vol. 88, 13–30. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4545070.

  • Rothstein, Susan. 2009. Individuating and measure readings of classifier constructions: Evidence from Modern Hebrew. Brill’s Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics 1(1). 106–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187666309x12491131130783.

  • Scha, Remko. 1981. Distributive, collective and cumulative quantification. In J. Groenendijk, T. Janssen & M. Stokhof (eds.), Formal methods in the study of language, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Mathematical Center Tracts. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110867602.131. Reprinted in Groenendijk et al. (1984), pages 131–158.

  • Schwarzschild, Roger. 1996. Pluralities, vol. 61 Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2704-4.

  • Schwarzschild, Roger. 2002. The grammar of measurement. In B. Jackson (ed.), Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 12), Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/salt.v12i0.2870.

  • Schwarzschild, Roger. 2006. The role of dimensions in the syntax of noun phrases. Syntax 9(1). 67–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9612.2006.00083.x.

  • Scontras, Gregory. 2014. The semantics of measurement: Harvard University dissertation. http://web.stanford.edu/~scontras//papers/Scontras_Thesis.pdf.

  • Selkirk, Lisa. 1977. Some remarks on noun phrase structure. In P. Culicover, T. Wasow & A. Akmajian (eds.), Formal syntax, 285–316. New York, NY: Academic Press.

  • von Stechow, Arnim. 1984. Comparing semantic theories of comparison. Journal of Semantics 3(1–2). 1–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/3.1–2.1.

  • von Stechow, Arnim. 2002. German seit ‘since’ and the ambiguity of the German perfect. In I. Kaufmann & B. Stiebels (eds.), More than words. A Festschrift for Dieter Wunderlich, 393–432. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783050081274-016.

  • Stickney, Helen. 2008. The emergence of DP in the partitive structure. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Dissertation. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations/AAI3380028.

  • Syrett, Kristen. 2013. The role of cardinality in the interpretation of measurement expressions. Language Acquisition 20(3). 228–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2013.796949.

  • Talmy, Leonard. 2011. Cognitive semantics: An overview. In K. von Heusinger, C. Maienborn & P. Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, vol. 1 Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science (HSK), chap. 27, 622–642. de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110226614.622.

  • Taylor, Barry. 1977. Tense and continuity. Linguistics and Philosophy 1(2). 199–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00351103.

  • Vendler, Zeno. 1957. Verbs and times. The Philosophical Review 66(2). 143–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2182371.

  • Wechsler, Stephen & Yae-Sheik Lee. 1996. The domain of direct case assignment. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 14(3). 629–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00133600.

  • Winter, Yoad. 2001. Flexibility principles in Boolean semantics: The interpretation of coordination, plurality, and scope in natural language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Zucchi, Sandro & Michael White. 2001. Twigs, sequences and the temporal constitution of predicates. Linguistics and Philosophy 24(2). 187–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1005690022190.

  • Zwarts, Joost. 2006. Event shape: Paths in the semantics of verbs. Manuscript. Radboud University Nijmegen and Utrecht University. http://www.let.uu.nl/users/Joost.Zwarts/personal/EventShape.pdf.

  • Zwarts, Joost & Henk J. Verkuyl. 1994. An algebra of conceptual structure: an investigation into Jackendoff’s conceptual semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 17(1). 1–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00985039

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


Journal + Issues

Theoretical Linguistics is an open peer review journal. Each issue contains one long target article about a topic of general linguistic interest, together with several shorter reactions, comments and reflections on it. With this format, the journal aims to stimulate discussion in linguistics and adjacent fields of study, in particular across schools of different theoretical orientations.

Search