Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute, monophasic neurologic syndrome that occurs after vaccination against various viruses and after many viral infections and rarely occurs again in the same patient. Weston Hurst disease or acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (AHE) is a hyperacute ADEM variant that shares many pathological similarities with ADEM. ADEM clinically and neuropathologically faithfully reflects the animal model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), and animal studies have provided us with new insights into pathogenesis of this disorder. Although there is much controversy whether ADEM is a separate disease or just one of possible manifestations of multiple sclerosis, there are clear histopathological characteristics that support ADEM as a separate disease This mini review will focus on pathological characteristics of ADEM emphasizing differences from other types of idiopathic demyelinating diseases.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 Poser C., The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: a general overview, Ann. Neurol.,1994, 36, S231–S243 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410360810
 Brinar V. V., Habek M., Diagnostic imaging in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Expert Rev. Neurother., 2010, 10, 459–467 http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/ern.10.9
 Hart M. N., Earle K. M., Haemorrhagic and perivenous encephalitis: a clinical-pathological review of 38 cases, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1975, 38, 585–591 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.38.6.585
 Gold R., Linington C., Lassmann H., Understanding pathogenesis and therapy of multiple sclerosis via animal models: 70 years of merits and culprits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis research, Brain, 2006, 129:1953–1971 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl075
 Kadlubowski M., Highes R., The neuritogenecity and encephalogenecity of P2 in in the rat, guinea pig and rabbit, J. Neurol. Sci., 1980, 48, 171–178 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-510X(80)90198-7
 van Bogaert L., Post-infectious encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. The significance of perivenous encephalomyelitis, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1950, 9, 219–249 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005072-195007000-00001
 Wegner C., Pathological differences in acute inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, Int. MS J., 2005, 12, 12–19
 Young N. P., Weinshenker B. G., Parisi J. E., Scheithauer B., Giannini C., Roemer S. F. et al., Perivenous demyelination: association with clinically defined acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and comparison with pathologically confirmed multiple sclerosis, Brain, 2010, 133, 333–348 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp321
 Rossi A., Imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am., 2008, 18, 149e61 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nic.2007.12.007
 Wingerchuk D. M., Lucchinetti C. F., Comparative immunopathogenesis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis, Curr. Opin. Neurol., 2007, 20, 343–350 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0b013e3280be58d8
 Marchioni E., Ravaglia S., Piccolo G., Furione M., Zardini E., Franciotta D. et al., Postinfectious inflammatory disorders: subgroups based on prospective follow-up, Neurology, 2005, 65, 1057–1065 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000179302.93960.ad
 Cohen O., Steiner-Birmanns B., Biran I., Abramsky O., Honigman S., Steiner I., Recurrence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at the previously affected brain site, Arch. Neurol., 2001, 58, 797–801 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.58.5.797
 Mar S., Lenox J., Benzinger T., Brown S., Noetzel M., Long-term prognosis of pediatric patients with relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, J. Child Neurol., 2010, 25, 681–688 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073809343320
 Kuperan S., Ostrow P., Landi M. K., Bakshi R., Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis vs ADEM: FLAIR MRI and neuropathology findings, Neurology, 2003, 60, 721–722
 Fontoura P., Leucoencefalitis aguda hemorragica de Weston Hurst. Estudio neuropatologico de un caso, Rev. Neurol., 2002, 35, 328–331
 Lumsden C., The clinical immunology of multiple sclerosis. In: McAlpine D., Lumsden C., Acheson E., editors. Multiple sclerosis a reaprraisal: 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1972. p 519
 Lassmann H., Comparative neuropathology of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, Schriftr. Neurol., 1983, 25, 1–135
 Lipton H. L., Theiler’s virus infection in mice: an unusual biphasic disease process leading to demyelination, Infect. Immun., 1975, 11, 1147–1155
 Jarousse N., Viktorova E. G., Pilipenko E. V., Agol V. I., Brahic M., An attenuated variant of the GDVII strain of Theiler’s virus does not persist and does not infect the white matter of the central nervous system, J. Virol., 1999, 73, 801–804
 Clark G., Bogdanove L. H., The induction of the lesions of allergic meningoencephalomyelitis in a predetermined location, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1955, 14, 433–437
 Bogdanove L. H., Clark G., The induction of exacerbations of allergic meningoencephalomyelitis, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1957, 16, 57–60 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005072-195701000-00006
 Jahnke U., Fischer E., Alvord E., Sequence homology between certain viral proteins and proteins related to encephalomyelitis and neuritis, Science, 1985, 229, 282–284 http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2409602
 Pirko I., Suidan G. L., Rodriguez M., Johnson A.J., Acute hemorrhagic demyelination in a murine model of multiple sclerosis, J. Neuroinflammation., 2008, 5, 31 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-5-31
Translational Neuroscience provides a closer interaction between basic and clinical neuroscientists to expand understanding of brain structure, function and disease, and translate this knowledge into clinical applications and novel therapies of nervous system disorders.
Reports novel findings that are likely to change the direction of thinking and practice in biomedical sciences. Covers research findings in all subfields of neuroscience.