The effect of selective head-neck cooling on physiological and cognitive functions in healthy volunteers

Kevin Jackson 1 , Rachael Rubin 1 , 2 , Nicole Van Hoeck 3 , Tommy Hauert 1 , Valentina Lana 1 ,  and Huan Wang 1 , 2
  • 1 Thermal Neuroscience Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, IL 61801, USA, Urbana
  • 2 Carle Foundation Hospital Urbana, , Il 61801, USA
  • 3 Psychological & Educational Sciences Vrije Universiteit Brussel, , Belgium

Abstract

In general, brain temperatures are elevated during physical sporting activities; therefore, reducing brain temperature shortly after a sports-related concussion (SRC) could be a promising intervention technique. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of head and neck cooling on physiological and cognitive function in normal healthy volunteers. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent two different sessions of combined head and neck cooling, one session with a cold pack and one session with a room temperature pack. Physiological measurements included: systolic/diastolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry, heart rate, and sublingual and tympanic temperature. Cognitive assessment included: processing speed, executive function, and working memory tasks. Physiological measurements were taken pre-, mid- and post-cooling, while cognitive assessments were done before and after cooling. The order of the sessions was randomized. There was a significant decrease in tympanic temperature across both sessions; however more cooling occurred when the cold pack was in the device. There was no significant decrease in sublingual temperature across either session. The observed heart rates, pulse oximetry, systolic and diastolic blood pressure during the sessions were all within range of a normal healthy adult. Cognitive assessment remained stable across each session for both pre- and post-cooling. We propose that optimizing brain temperature management after brain injury using head and neck cooling technology may represent a sensible, practical, and effective strategy to potentially enhance recovery and perhaps minimize the subsequent short and long term consequences from SRC.

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