The text-critical meaning of the Ketib/Qere notes in the Masoretic text has been a longstanding problem, namely whether such Masoretic notes are the Masoretes' corrections or their collations from older textual traditions. This paper will answer this question by investigating and analysing their relations to the Septuagint, especially in the text of II Samuel. In order to compare the notes to the Septuagint, however, the book of II Samuel should be investigated in two sections separately: the so-called non-Kaige section (II Sam 1,1–11,1) and the Kaige section (II Sam 11,2-fin). The results of the analysis show: (1) In the non-Kaige section Ant is mostly identical with the Old Greek, and the Vorlage of the Old Greek was very near to the Qere tradition. This means that the Ketib/Qere notes can go back to the older textual traditions. (2) In the Kaige section the Ketib/Qere notes confirm that the textual tradition in early Jewish times was plural in form and flexible, and that the textual forms represented by Ketib and Qere represent an important part of the textual tradition at that time.