This paper explores the association between gender and research productivity during the doctoral phase. It investigates whether differences in scholarly productivity can be attributed to gender-specific effects of parenthood or gender-specific social capital endowments. To address these research questions, the study uses data from a recent survey of doctoral candidates in Germany that was conducted by the DZHW [German Centre for Research on Higher Education and Science Studies]. The results show that women publish less than men. This productivity gap results, in part, from the fact that women receive less support from their academic environment. In contrast to my initial hypotheses, I do not find any gender-specific effects of parenthood on scholarly productivity. Because publications have a determining influence on careers in academia, these early differences in research productivity might entail long-lasting disadvantages for women.