Effect of diffraction crystallography on HREM

Fang-hua Li

Abstract

A simple image contrast theory in high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) is introduced to demonstrate that below a certain critical crystal thickness the intensity of the Scherzer focus image is linear to the projected potential of an artificial crystal that is isomorphic to the examined one. It has become the theoretical base of electron crystallographic image processing techniques relying on the weak-phase-object approximation and kinematical diffraction. Two techniques of image processing are introduced. One of them aims at determining crystal structures by combining electron diffraction data and applying diffraction analysis methods. To reduce various kinds of electron diffraction intensity distortion the diffraction data are corrected by means of an empirical method set up by referring to the heavy atom method and Wilson statistic. The other one aims at revealing crystal defects at atomic resolution from the image taken with a medium-voltage field-emission high-resolution electron microscope. The dynamical effect is corrected by forcing the integral amplitudes of reflections in the diffractogram of image equal to the amplitudes of corresponding structure factors for the perfect crystal. The principle of the two techniques is briefly introduced, and examples of applications to crystal structure and defect determination are given.

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Zeitschrift für Kristallographie – Crystalline Materials offers a place for researchers to present results of their crystallographic studies. The journal includes theoretical as well as experimental research. It publishes Original Papers, Letters and Review Articles in manifold areas of crystallography.

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