Stacking disorders in zeolites and open-frameworks – structure elucidation and analysis by electron crystallography and X-ray diffraction

Tom Willhammar and Xiaodong Zou
  • Stockholm University, Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Schweden


Intergrowth and stacking disorders are often found in minerals and synthetic zeolites and inorganic open-frameworks. Structure elucidation of stacking disorders in these materials have been difficult and structure solution of stacking disorders in unknown zeolites and open-frameworks has been challenging. There exist no standard methods for structure analysis of such disordered materials. In this review we present various stacking disorders and intergrowth in a number of representative zeolite families containing stacking disorders. These include zeolite beta, SSZ-26/SSZ-33, ITQ-39, ABC-6, ZSM-48, SSZ-31, UTD-1, faujasite FAU/EMT, pentasil ZSM-5/ZSM-11, ITQ-13/ITQ-34, ITQ-22/ITQ-38 etc. Stacking disorders in open-frameworks containing mixed coordinations, including titanosilicates ETS-10 and ETS-4, and the silicogermanate SU-JU-14 are also described. Various crystallographic methods used for solving disordered structures are summarized. The methods include powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Examples of model building combined with simulations of PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction to verify the structure models are given.

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Zeitschrift für Kristallographie – Crystalline Materials offers a place for researchers to present results of their crystallographic studies. The journal includes theoretical as well as experimental research. It publishes Original Papers, Letters and Review Articles in manifold areas of crystallography.