Particles and Antiparticles According to Covariant Schrödinger Equations

Fritz Bopp 1
  • 1 Sektion Physik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in München


We introduce manifestly covariant Schrödinger equations. This has the advantage that the energies of particles are always positive. Charges of particles and antiparticles have opposite signs. The physical vacuum equals the formal one. - All that occurs because manifestly covariant Schrödinger equations yield pairs of operators which differ only in some signs of eigenvalues: (i) The number of particles and the charge, (ii) the space-time wave vector and the space time momenta, (iii) the kinematical and the dynamical angular momenta.

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