Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Quercetin-3’-O-β-D-glucoside Isolated from Allium cepa

Enos Tangke Arung 1 , 2 , Shoko Furuta 3 , Hiroya Ishikawa 3 , Hiroyuki Tanaka 4 , and Kuniyoshi Shimizu 1
  • 1 Department of Agro-environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8581, Japan
  • 2 Department of Forest Product Technology, Faculty of Forestry, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, 75123, Indonesia
  • 3 Department of Nutrition and Health Science, Faculty of Human Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women’s University, Fukuoka, 813-8529, Japan
  • 4 Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan

In the course of searching for new whitening agents, we have found that the methanol extract of dried skin of Allium cepa shows potent melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of quercetin-3’-O-β- D-glucoside (1) from the methanol extract of dried skin of A. cepa, which inhibited melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells with an IC50 value of 38.8 μM and mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 6.5 μM using L-tyrosine and 48.5 μM using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrates, respectively. In addition, the antioxidant activity of 1 was evaluated in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay; it showed 3.04 μmol Trolox equivalents/mmol. 1 was shown to be a promising ingredient that could be useful for treating hyperpigmentation and for protecting against oxidative stress.

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