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Rutenberg, Amy J.

Rough Draft

Cold War Military Manpower Policy and the Origins of Vietnam-Era Draft Resistance


    165,95 € / $189.95 / £150.00*

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    Publication Date:
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    September 2019
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    Aims and Scope

    Rough Draft draws the curtain on the race and class inequities of the Selective Service during the Vietnam War. Amy J. Rutenberg argues that policy makers' idealized conceptions of Cold War middle-class masculinity directly affected whom they targeted for conscription and also for deferment. Federal officials believed that college educated men could protect the nation from the threat of communism more effectively as civilians than as soldiers. The availability of deferments for this group mushroomed between 1945 and 1965, making it less and less likely that middle-class white men would serve in the Cold War army. Meanwhile, officials used the War on Poverty to target poorer and racialized men for conscription in the hopes that military service would offer them skills they could use in civilian life.

    As Rutenberg shows, manpower policies between World War II and the Vietnam War had unintended consequences. While some men resisted military service in Vietnam for reasons of political conscience, most did so because manpower polices made it possible. By shielding middle-class breadwinners in the name of national security, policymakers militarized certain civilian roles—a move that, ironically, separated military service from the obligations of masculine citizenship and, ultimately, helped kill the draft in the United States.


    276 pages
    10 b&w halftones
    Military service, the draft, selective service, masculinity, militarization, gender studies

    More ...

    RutenbergAmy J.:

    Amy J. Rutenberg is Assistant Professor of History at Iowa State University. Follow her on Twitter @amyjay401.


    Gregory A. Daddis, Chapman University, author of Westmoreland's War:

    "A superb addition to any course evaluating the relationships between war and American society. Well-written and tightly argued, Rutenberg illuminates the problems of social mobilization into the armed forces during the Cold War era, all the while contesting the popular memory of the 'Greatest Generation.'"

    Heather Stur, University of Southern Mississippi, author of The U.S. Military and Civil Rights Since World War II:

    "Lively and accessible, Rough Draft challenges the conventional wisdom about Americans' commitment to military service, the motivations behind Vietnam-era draft resistance, and the construction of appropriate roles for men in post-World War II society. It will be read by armchair historians and students of military and gender studies alike."

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