Nietzsche’s thinking is unparalleled in its contradictory effects and it continues to be relevant. Even today, opinions on him diverge strongly. Through the 20th century, philosophies, art movements and political ideologies have oscillated between euphoria and condemnation, affirmation and an ignoring silence. Incorrect and abusive readings in fascist and Stalinist circles perverted his ideas and utopias. After 1945, historically and critically informed approaches in philosophy, the arts and the media provided initiallycautious insights into the diversity of the interpretations of his thinking; this field of activity intensified towards the end of the century. In the main currents of philosophy, ethics and esthetics and in the modern and postmodern theories of art, Nietzsche’s thinking has provided major impulses. Scientific and sociological interest in his provocative theories shows that his thinking continues to indicate possible paths forward. Literary and musical adaptations, his significance for visual artists from expressionism to the New Objectivity, his influence on the designs of modern architecture: from the perspective of current international Nietzsche research, all these factors provide a comprehensive overview of one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century.