Figure 2

Major molecular targets and biological consequences of oxidative stress.

ROS/RNS attack proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, promoting various molecular modifications responsible for disturbed biological functions. Abbreviations: Cys, cysteine; Pro, proline; Thr, threonine; Lys, lysine; Tyr, tyrosine; PUFAs, poly-unsaturated fatty acids; LDL, low-density lipoproteins; PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

© De Gruyter