Figure 4

(a) Graph describing a MAR missingness process. X and Y are fully observed variables, Z is partially observed and Z is a proxy for Z. Rz is a binary variable that acts as a switch: Z=Z when Rz=0 and Z=m when Rz=1. (b) Graph representing a MNAR process. (The proxies Z,X, and Y are not shown.)

© De Gruyter