Figure 5:

Approaches for SERS-based DNA detection. (A) Label-free DNA detection using iodide-modified AgNPs [224], (B) sandwich assay for the detection of DNA using AuNPs probes labeled with oligonucleotides [225], (C) Raman dye labelled hairpin-DNA probes for the detection of DNA based on the on-off approach [226]. (D) DNA detection based on the off-on approach. [227]. Reproduced with permission from Refs. [224], [225], [226], [227].

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