Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter November 9, 2023

User orientation and position-based transmission characteristics analysis of a LiFi system

  • M. Shariful Islam , Mobasshir Mahbub ORCID logo EMAIL logo and Bobby Barua


The objective of the work is to analyze the downlink signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), transmission rate, bit error rate (BER), and average BER in terms of the irradiance angle of the receiver’s orientation and incident light and transmitter-to-receiver separation distance. The research considered two Light Fidelity (LiFi) access points (APs) for this analysis in a smart classroom context. The work derived the best favorable irradiance angle in terms of transmitter–receiver separation at which user devices achieve the highest SINR and transmission rate considering both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) coverage areas. Moreover, the work analyzed SINR-based BER and average BER for the same communication scenario. The research derived that 47° to 50° irradiance angles of the receiver’s orientation and incident light offer the most favorable performance.

Corresponding author: Mobasshir Mahbub, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mail:

Funding source: Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology

Award Identifier / Grant number: ARP/2022/EEE/02/09


The authors are expressing their gratitude to the CASR and the department of EEE, AUST for their support.

  1. Research ethics: Not applicable.

  2. Author contributions: Mobasshir Mahbub – conception, literature review, system modeling, simulation, writing draft. M. Shariful Islam – system modeling, supervision, review, validation. Bobby Barua – supervision, review, validation.

  3. Competing interests: The authors’ declare no known competing interest.

  4. Research funding: This research work has been supported by the office of the Committee for Advanced Studies and Research (CASR) of Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology (AUST) under the Project/Grant ID: ARP/2022/EEE/02/09.

  5. Data availability: Not applicable.


1. Wu, Y, Gao, X, Zhou, S, Yang, W, Polyanskiy, Y, Caire, G. Massive access for future wireless communication systems. IEEE Wireless Commun 2020;27:148–56, in Google Scholar

2. Baset, A, Becker, C, Derr, K, Ramirez, S, Kasera, S, Bhaskara, A. Towards wireless environment cognizance through incremental learning. In: 2019 IEEE 16th international conference on mobile ad hoc and sensor systems (MASS). Monterey, CA, USA; 2019:256–64 pp.10.1109/MASS.2019.00038Search in Google Scholar

3. Flavián, C, Ibáñez-Sánchez, S, Orús, C. The impact of virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies on the customer experience. J Bus Res 2019;100:547–60, in Google Scholar

4. Cardoso, LFS, Kimura, BYL, Zorzal, ER. Towards augmented and mixed reality on future mobile networks. Multimed Tool Appl 2023, in Google Scholar

5. da Silva Oliveira, S, Silva, GEPL, Gorgônio, AC, Barreto, CAS, Canuto, AMP, Carvalho, BM. Team recommendation for the Pokémon GO game using optimization approaches. In: 2020 19th Brazilian symposium on computer games and digital entertainment (SBGames). Recife, Brazil; 2020:163–70 pp.10.1109/SBGames51465.2020.00030Search in Google Scholar

6. Figueiredo, M, Alves, LN, Ribeiro, C. Lighting the wireless world: the promise and challenges of visible light communication. IEEE Consum Electron Mag 2017;6:28–37, in Google Scholar

7. Matheus, LEM, Vieira, AB, Vieira, LFM, Vieira, MAM, Gnawali, O. Visible light communication: concepts, applications and challenges. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 2019;21:3204–37, in Google Scholar

8. Albraheem, LI, Alhudaithy, LH, Aljaser, AA, Aldhafian, MR, Bahliwah, GM. Toward designing a Li-Fi-based hierarchical IoT architecture. IEEE Access;6:40811–25, in Google Scholar

9. Soni, N, Mohta, M, Choudhury, T. The looming visible light communication Li-Fi: an edge over Wi-Fi. In: 2016 international conference system modeling & advancement in research trends (SMART). Moradabad, India; 2016:201–5 pp.10.1109/SYSMART.2016.7894519Search in Google Scholar

10. Bhutani, M, Lall, B, Agrawal, M. Optical wireless communications: research challenges for MAC layer. IEEE Access 2022;10:126969–89, in Google Scholar

11. Celik, A, Romdhane, I, Kaddoum, G, Eltawil, AM. A top-down survey on optical wireless communications for the internet of things. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 2023;25:1–45, in Google Scholar

12. Wu, X, Soltani, MD, Zhou, L, Safari, M, Haas, H. Hybrid LiFi and WiFi networks: a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 2021;23:1398–420, in Google Scholar

13. Ji, R, Wang, S, Liu, Q, Lu, W. High-speed visible light communications: enabling technologies and state of the art. Appl Sci 2018;8. in Google Scholar

14. Lourenço, N, Terra, D, Kumar, N, Alves, LN, Aguiar, RL. Visible light communication system for outdoor applications. In: 2012 8th international symposium on communication systems, networks & digital signal processing (CSNDSP). Poznan, Poland; 2012:1–6 pp.10.1109/CSNDSP.2012.6292744Search in Google Scholar

15. Ghassemlooy, Z, Arnon, S, Uysal, M, Xu, Z, Cheng, J. Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges. IEEE J Sel Area Commun 2015;33:1738–49, in Google Scholar

16. Khan, F, Jan, SR, Tahir, M, Khan, S. Applications, limitations, and improvements in visible light communication systems. In: 2015 international conference on connected vehicles and expo (ICCVE). Shenzhen, China; 2015:259–62 pp.10.1109/ICCVE.2015.46Search in Google Scholar

17. Tsonev, D, Chun, H, Rajbhandari, S, McKendry, JJD, Videv, S, Gu, E, et al.. A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2014;26:637–40, in Google Scholar

18. Fon, RC, Ndjiongue, AR, Ouahada, K, Abu-Mahfouz, AM. Fibre optic-VLC versus laser-VLC: a review study. Photonic Netw Commun 2023, in Google Scholar

19. Badeel, R, Subramaniam, SK, Hanapi, ZM, Muhammed, A. A review on LiFi network research: open issues, applications and future directions. Appl Sci 2021;11, in Google Scholar

20. Ghaderi, MR. LiFi and Hybrid WiFi/LiFi indoor networking: from theory to practice. Opt Switch Netw 2023;47, in Google Scholar

21. Sharma, PK, Ryu, JH, Park, KY, Park, JH, Park, JH. Li-Fi based on security cloud framework for future IT environment. Hum-centric Comput Inf Sci 2018;8, in Google Scholar

22. Hesham, H, Ismail, T. Hybrid NOMA-based ACO-FBMC/OQAM for next-generation indoor optical wireless communications using LiFi technology. Opt Quant Electron 2022;54, in Google Scholar

23. Soltani, MD, Zeng, Z, Tavakkolnia, I, Haas, H, Safari, M. Random receiver orientation effect on channel gain in LiFi systems. In: 2019 IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC). Marrakesh, Morocco; 2019:1–6 pp.10.1109/WCNC.2019.8886097Search in Google Scholar

24. Ozyurt, AB, Bian, R, Haas, H, Popoola, WO. Energy and spectral efficiency of multi-tier LiFi networks. In: 2023 IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC). Glasgow, United Kingdom; 2023:1–6 pp.10.1109/WCNC55385.2023.10118728Search in Google Scholar

25. Soltani, MD, Wu, X, Safari, M, Haas, H. Bidirectional user throughput maximization based on feedback reduction in LiFi networks. IEEE Trans Commun 2018;66:3172–86, in Google Scholar

26. Arfaoui, MA, Soltani, MD, Tavakkolnia, I, Ghrayeb, A, Assi, CM, Safari, M, et al.. Measurements-based channel models for indoor LiFi systems. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 2021;20:827–42, in Google Scholar

27. Soltani, MD, Purwita, AA, Zeng, Z, Haas, H, Safari, M. Modeling the random orientation of mobile devices: measurement, analysis and LiFi use case. IEEE Trans Commun 2019;67:2157–72, in Google Scholar

28. Wu, X, Safari, M, Haas, H. Joint optimisation of load balancing and handover for hybrid LiFi and WiFi networks. In: 2017 IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC). San Francisco, CA, USA; 2017:1–5 pp.10.1109/WCNC.2017.7925839Search in Google Scholar

29. Proakis, JG. Digital communications, 4th ed. New York, NY, United States: McGraw Hill; 2000.Search in Google Scholar

30. Evans, M, Hastings, N, Peacock, B. Statistical distributions, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1993.Search in Google Scholar

31. Mood, AM, Graybill, FA, Boes, DC. Introduction to the theory of statistics, 3rd ed. New York, NY, United States: McGraw-Hill; 1974.Search in Google Scholar

32. Huynh, HD, Sandrasegaran, KS. Coverage performance of light fidelity (Li-Fi) network. In: 2019 25th Asia-Pacific conference on communications (APCC). Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 2019:361–6 pp.10.1109/APCC47188.2019.9026407Search in Google Scholar

33. Wang, Y, Wu, X, Haas, H. Load balancing game with shadowing effect for indoor hybrid LiFi/RF networks. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 2017;16:2366–78, in Google Scholar

34. Wu, X, O’Brien, DC. Parallel transmission LiFi. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 2020;19:6268–76, in Google Scholar

35. Wang, Y, Wu, X, Haas, H. Analysis of area data rate with shadowing effects in Li-Fi and RF hybrid network. In: 2016 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2016:1–5 pp.10.1109/ICC.2016.7511139Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2023-08-23
Accepted: 2023-10-18
Published Online: 2023-11-09

© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 5.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button